Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an spot of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by indigenous chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land meant as a residence for African settlers who ended up waifs in London and afterwards it was utilized as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on twenty first August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on twenty seventh April, 1961 and turned a Republic in 1971. Education is presented by both private and point out-sponsored colleges. The existing method of training is six-three-four-four (that is six a long time Primary school, a few several years Junior Secondary School, four many years Senior Secondary University and four many years tertiary/higher education. This system is complemented by non- official training.
Notion OF Education
Education and learning is regularly used in the feeling of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science place and consists principally in the imparting by the instructor, and the acquisition by pupils, of data and psychological as nicely as guide capabilities. A wider that means than instruction is that of education. That is to say all that goes on inside of the faculty as component of the pupil’s life there. It consists of, among other issues, partnership in between pupils and teachers, pupils and pupils the two in and outside the faculty. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that whatever will help to shape the human getting to make the personal what he is or hinder him from currently being what he is not is element of his schooling. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous it is the sum overall of all influences which go to make a man or woman what he is, from delivery to dying. It involves the residence, our neighbors, and the street between other folks.
Training is to some extent a deliberate planned approach devised and performed by the educator with the objective of imbuing the learner with specific data, skills, of brain and entire body as properly as modes of behavior regarded attractive. In portion it is the learner’s possess response to the environment in which he lives. Education and learning has a few focal details: the personal/man or woman on whom the educator’s influences are brought to bear the culture or local community to which he belongs and the whole context of actuality within which the personal and culture play their portion. Gentleman is a social creature he grows as a particular person via the affect of individuality on individuality and even for his standard physical wants he is dependent on the assist and cooperation of his fellow guys and women. With out culture and the mutual assistance and enrichment of experiences which it provides civilization is impossible and the life of gentleman, in Hobbes’ words and phrases, is “solitary, inadequate, nasty, brutish and quick.”
1 of the essential details of human existence is the pressure between the pull of the previous and the forward urge into the future, in between stability and change, custom and innovation. For efficient living,guy needs a circle of protection, an region of set up routines and partnership which varieties trustworthy associations. This is also real of society. For its effective performing there have to be an fundamental continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its id as a modern society and safeguards it towards the disruptive results of alter. Adjust should be for lifestyle and not static but this change in flip must be managed by the standard traditions of culture. It is custom which offers a nation its character and distinctiveness as a modern society. The conservation of tradition consequently is obviously vital.
It has been recognized from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional education has a important part to perform in the improvement of the little one. The kids of today are the adults of tomorrow they should be qualified therefore, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the distinct society to which they belong. For each society has the need to protect by itself not only physically but as local community consciously sharing particular aims, ideals and styles of behavior. This sort of training is not necessarily official in faculties by means of classroom instruction but that effected indirectly by way of the family members and through the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social education and learning incorporated elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance in which young gentlemen and ladies have to confirm on their own deserving of the local community. The ultimate goal was to generate an person who was trustworthy, respectful, experienced, cooperative, and who could conform to the social purchase of the working day. As Aristotle after stated “the structure of a state will suffer if training is neglected. The citizens of a point out need to always be educated to suit the constitution of the state. The kind of character acceptable to a structure is the power which carries on to sustain it as it is also the state power which originally designed it” (p. I).
Conventional Education and learning IN Culture
Standard training has equally a inventive and conservation function in society it is a strong indicates of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. In the past the mother nature and needs of modern society performed a crucial component in determining the mother nature of training. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) when wrote in his book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the instructional technique will are likely to reflect the social sample, even though social uneasiness and instability create prospect for utilizing training as an instrument of social change”(p.seven). A similar see was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by means of education society can formulate its very own needs, can manage its own means and methods and hence preserve itself with definiteness and financial system in the course in which it needs to shift. Education appears each to the earlier and the future inevitably it displays the traditions and character of modern society. Classic education can be utilised to prepare for changes in society and anticipate and avert adjustments or the effects of adjustments in modern society.
Traditional education conserves and palms on the customs and ways of existence which constitute the character of a society and maintains its unity. It also will help modern society to interpret its capabilities in new ways to meet up with the difficulties of adjust, seeking methods or lines of growth which are consistent with the traditions and customs and will at the exact same time raise society to a much more complete achievement of itself.
ecole democratique paris
Conventional Academic Institutions IN SIERRA LEONE
Background reveals that there had been no official educational institutions in which young children had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Mystery Societies have been seemed on as institutions to train children. They have been bush schools. And the schooling these bush educational institutions presented was casual. Kids who went by way of these key societies had been regarded as capable of carrying out their civic duties. They grew to become adults and can marry and commence daily life. They regarded as them selves as 1 family. In other words and phrases both Mystery Societies produced a sense of comradeship and unity amid users irrespective of family members, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was therefore deemed that children who experienced not gone by way of these magic formula societies have been not entirely matured.
The Poro Key Culture is for boys. The spiritual head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, witnessed only by the more mature graduates or customers. The physical heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They immediate the pursuits of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who typically educate and give directions to other initiators. The Pa Manchiyas serve as teachers to the initiates even though the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the women and youngsters alike together with the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages close to. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects although the Sayboms are the prefects and the screens are the Gbanaboms. Casual classes are held in the Mystery Poro Bush. The subjects taught contain Inventive Functional Arts, Carrying out Arts, Functional Agriculture, Medication i.e. use of local herbs for the treatment of different illnesses), warfare and other capabilities. In Inventive Practical Arts initiates are taught how to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wood and cleaning soap stones into different objects these kinds of as animals and human beings in Carrying out Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the use of Poro musical instruments. In Sensible Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship without grievance and increase accustomed to it. Thus they are taken to the farms of their instructors and elders to work on professional bono basis. Even so for the duration of the harvest season initiates could move through these farms getting no matter what they require and eat without having currently being questioned by farm proprietors. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of guns to get rid of animals. In a related vein initiates are taught how to use guns in preventing in protection of their communities. Other skills initiates are taught incorporate creating fish traps, fishing and hunting internet, and basketry. In the use of herbs initiates pay out money (some freely presented) for therapeutic various sicknesses as nicely as for defense against enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who want to lead to damage to other folks making use of herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/drugs involved. Above all initiates are taught a new Language spoken only by customers called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika indicating I am speaking to you fonka bonomi which means Speak to me. The use of this new Language makes graduates really proud and feel various from non-initiates. Graduates arrive out with new names this kind of as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduation ceremony climaxes the event.
Mother and father make substantial preparations which includes stitching dresses for the graduates. To mark the graduation ceremony there is feasting, ingesting, dancing and singing praise tracks for the graduates and their dad and mom. These qualified for initiation should have been circumcised and developed to age of puberty. They have to live on their own for the duration of the period of coaching which ranges from one particular to 7 years. Graduates are entirely admitted to the standard Poro culture by means of another ceremony called Enkorie, which lasts for 4 times.
The Bondo/Sande Modern society is the institution exactly where ladies are skilled for womanhood. Its spiritual head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the physical heads. These have spiritual powers employed to foretell the foreseeable future and catch witches. They are the senior academics. The Na Sokos are the service instructors. They can initiate women even up to the superior phase of the Society. The Digbas are the general instructors and keep near to the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand ladies/girls. They make announcements about the development and routines or packages in the course of the graduation ceremony.
The Na Fets, as the identify implies do not know all the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the increased status of the establishment. Ladies admitted to the Bondo/Sande Culture are educated informally. Courses are held at Kantha or sacred residence. The academics are mainly involved with the transmission to these adolescent girls the abilities and understanding which adult women are expected to possess in purchase to purpose appropriately and intelligently in their local community. The subjects women are taught consist of Cooking, Carrying out Arts, Fishing, Husband and Youngster Treatment, and Property Administration. In Cooking women are taught how to put together foodstuff by way of observation and participation in the planning of different dishes and are afterwards allowed to have a go with little or no supervision. Those who could not cook dinner effectively are permitted to repeat. In Performing Arts ladies are taught how to compose and sing tracks and how to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing women are taught how to dance and those who dance properly could join the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are also taught how to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Additional girls are taught how to aid their future husbands and how to just take care of young children particularly these of senior users. Like the Poro Culture graduation ceremonies are marked by huge preparations. The two parents and prospective husbands would purchase new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the working day of the graduation ceremony the new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names this sort of as Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates a sign of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande modern society lasts among a couple of months and three a long time.
If schooling has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a modifying environment, and of elevating them to richer and a lot more fruitful expression then the two the Poro and Bondo/Sande Key Societies, as conventional brokers of this procedure need to appreciate a position of the highest esteem. Through these key societies the nation’s culture flows from a single generation to the other and the aspirations of modern society are focused with personal and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at a point where the energies of young children are released into new and creative opportunities. Through these magic formula societies kids bear in mind the previous actions of their predecessors. They support in behavioral coaching patterns of culture. These societies are institutions of inspiration and both politicians and chiefs use them to advantage. That is to both gain or sustain energy. Major and binding decisions are taken in the Poro Bush of which only customers are permitted to attend and get portion. The Poro Secret Modern society acts as a verify against the abuse of power. In crisis ridden situations main selection are taken in the Poro Bush. The Poro culture even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and could promulgate standard rules and regulate buying and selling practices. It is also involved in the burial of chiefs and other crucial local officials (Alie, 1990).
Western education has existed in the nation for lengthy and is now so integral part of the civilized lifestyle that there is a tendency to assume that it is the major or sole indicates of imparting abilities, information and social values in kids. This is not the circumstance in Sierra Leone. The value of the Poro and Bondo classic key societies can not be over-sighted since of their enormous potentiality in educating kids for daily life in society. Fundamental is that regard for individuals as individuals is the foundation of traditional modern society. Joined with this is courtesy, sensitivity to the demands of other folks, cooperativeness, self-self-discipline, ethical and physical bravery, challenging operate and high standards of accomplishment. These are passed on to kids in the atmosphere in which they are element of their daily encounters. Notwithstanding, these conventional establishments as brokers of schooling are currently confronted with several problems there-by forcing their demise. The apply of female genital circumcision is of international problem and in Sierra Leone people are agitating for its overall ban. At present girls are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which time a child is perceived to be matured enough to select regardless of whether or not to be initiated into the Bondo/Sande mystery culture. In addition the period of initiation is perceived as well lengthy and is being challenged. Apart from kids these times no for a longer time have to be initiated into these societies to be taught how to be clear, cook, rear young children, apply agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to cite a few illustrations. All these could be learnt possibly in or outside formal education through studying. What is far more Faith, specially Christianity and Islam, western daily life, as nicely as rural-city migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.
Besides the actions and operate of these standard societies are not in curriculum kind and documented. Neither also is the use of herbs documented. Consequently by discontinuing these classic key societies Sierra Leoneans stand to drop their cultural heritage. If even so, education and learning has the important purpose of perpetuating the traditions and values of modern society, of adapting them to a modifying setting, and of elevating them to a richer and much more fruitful expression then these classic magic formula societies, as brokers of this approach should enjoy a place of the highest esteem. By means of these societies the national culture flows from a single generation to one more and the aspirations of modern society are concentrated with intimate and telling persuasion upon the youthful. These mystery societies stand at the stage exactly where the energies of children are released into new and imaginative prospects.